If you work on an oil rig in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, you are covered under the Longshore and Harbor Workers Compensation Act. As well as the Defense Base Act, Expatriate Compensation, and the Jones Act. The Longshore Act and DBA ensure that, should you ever be hurt on the job, you will be granted compensation for it. These benefits come directly from your employer, who is required to be authorized as self insured.
Do not think that if you are out of work a day because you sprained your pinky toe. No, you have to be out of work at least three days to even consider applying for workers compensation. And as of the writing of this article, the current minimum wage replacement comes out to $323.80. The DBA is when you need to put a little pressure on the company to make sure that you get what is coming to you. And it has been dubbed as claimant friendly due to the how it handles the fees for the Dba attorney.
You are protected under Expatriate compensation because it makes sure that you get paid what you deserve, in your home country currency. If a company in Latvia wants to hire you, then you are more than welcome to go over there to work. But you are protected under Expatriate Compensation from them paying you in Lats (yes, that is the clever name for their currency) if you do not accept. Instead, they are required to either pay you in American dollars, or pay you in enough Lats that once it is exchanged for American dollars, it equals out to what you should be earning. The same can be said if your company in the States wants to send you to Latvia, whatever you are paid needs to be the American equivalent. This can make it quite pricey to hire expatriates, that is why most companies do not go that route.
The Jones Act is the law dealing with coastal shipping, also known as cabotage. This act requires that all water shipped goods going between US ports is to be US crazy. It needs to be crewed by US citizens and permanent residents. It must be owned by a citizen, constructed in the States, and must be a US flag ship.